G. P. Gladyshev
Following the proper diet is probably the most important preventive action to healthy living and healthy aging. Diet affects the operation of all parts of the body and is one of the factors preventing various diseases.
These allegations made on the quantitative level are consistent with the findings of hierarchical thermodynamics, established on the foundation of the most accurate physical theory - the theory of Josiah Willard Gibbs.
The purpose of this short article is to draw the attention of researchers that the foundations of the hierarchical nutritional thermodynamics (thermodynamics supply) created at the end of the last century. Thermodynamic theory allows on a rigorous scientific basis to recommend diets that promote health, healthy aging and long life. This theory is consistent with many of the statements of ancient medicine and is making new ones, at first glance, unexpected recommendations. It should be noted that this area of science is not directly related to "the thermodynamics of nutritional medicine ", which takes into account only the calorie content of food.
This article should draw the attention of practicing physicians about the existence of the "fantastic recommendations" of some nutritionists, professional unfamiliar with the new thermodynamic approach in the field of dietetics. Often these recommendations are made on the basis of limited personal experience of the authors referred to recommendations, or based on other people's data. Some authors use recommendations of the thermodynamic theory of aging, without citing references. Many articles in the field of dietetics are devoted to a new terminology and also to schemes and pictures that did not always show the gerontological valuable foods. These articles are advertising of "scientific business", which is not always relevant to modern science. It is appropriate to quote the words: "In nutritional medicine are so many diets as are numbers of nutritionists." Of course, this situation is not satisfactory. Application of thermodynamic theory must, of course, in some extent to improve this state of the area.
The following are some general considerations related to the thermodynamic approach to problems of nutrition.
2. The thermodynamic theory of aging in action: nutritional medicine
For decades, the opinion was widespread that natural open biological systems are far from an equilibrium state. It was also believed that far from equilibrium processes take place in these systems.
However, recently, the law of temporal hierarchies was formulated. This law substantiates the possibility of identifying, or discerning, quasi-closed monohierarchical systems or subsystems within open polyhierarchical biological systems. It was also established, as a rule, that the processes of evolution in living natural systems are quasi-equilibrium processes. It was shown that models of living systems are analogues of models of equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium chromatographic columns.
These facts facilitated the development of quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics of near to equilibrium quasi-closed systems. This variation of thermodynamics is based on the statement that the functions of state, to within a good approximation, at any moment of time in quasi-closed monohierarchical systems have a real physical meaning, i.e. a quantitative sense. Thus, classical thermodynamics using a linear approximation, i.e. the thermodynamics of near to equilibrium systems, at the phenomenological level can be used for the investigation of the origin of life, biological evolution, and the development and aging of organisms. Such investigations are carried out in terms of kinetic, or dynamical, linear thermodynamics.
It has been shown that the variation of the chemical composition of living beings in the course of ontogenesis and phylogenies is a consequence of change in the mean specific value of the Gibbs function of formation for supramolecular or intermolecular interactions operating during the formation of supramolecular structures of an organism's tissues, which in quantitative value tends to a minimum. Strictly speaking, this variation is connected with the trend for mean specific values of the Gibbs function related to a unit of volume or mass, at all hierarchical levels, to seek a minimum.
The principle of the substance stability and feedback has been formulated. It is applicable to any biological system belonging to different hierarchies. For instance, this principle explains the accumulation of a substance with chemically high energy capacity by biological systems in the course of evolution and aging of living beings. This energetic accumulation of substance forces water out of these systems.
The arguments presented in my works ( http://creatacad.org/?id=48&lng=eng ), being well-substantiated, indicates that practically all concrete, i.e. detailed, recommendations relating to nutrition and lifestyle are individual. Such recommendations should be formulated on the basis of general and anti-aging medicine, from gerontology, and should take into account the findings of physicochemical dietetics (nutritional medicine).
The thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and aging of living organisms, built on the foundation of classical science, provides an opportunity to formulate general concepts pertaining to nutrition. These formulations and concepts will encourage and stimulate behavioral and dietary (nutritional medicine) changes thermodynamically-favored towards the development of long and healthy human lives.
Diets promoting a healthy life style should, of course, comprise only ecologically clean foods. They should be balanced as to composition and caloric value. It is extremely important for a diet to include foods from cold, i.e. deep, regions of the sea and foods made from plants and animals inhabiting cold and Alpine regions. It is also desirable that the biomass used should be that of young plants and animals, because this biomass has a higher anti-aging value. Moreover, food stuffs should be prepared from the biomass of ancient species, i.e., living organisms with a low phylogenetic development level, being those situated at the early stages of phylogenies. Food for which young, ontogenetically and phylogenetically, plants and animals are used is not only gerontologically valuable but also, for obvious reasons, has a low caloric value. These steps are known to prolong life in a healthy manner and certain to increase general longevity. Pure, practically salt-free drinking water, as unadulterated glacial water, should be used in the maximal quantity acceptable for every patient. Medicinal mineral waters should be specifically indicated.
Generally, it is advisable to use foods and water that meet general up-to-date standards developed on a strictly scientific basis. It is also desirable that these foods and water intake recommendations, according to well-known patents, should be recognized to have high anti-aging value and that the water should be “gerontologically pure.” Specific recommendations, which are an object of current research, are also available.
Lastly, it is important to take into account, from the viewpoint of hierarchical thermodynamics, that anti-aging diets and many drugs can be used for the prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and for numerous other illnesses.
1. Gladyshev G. P. Supramolecular thermodynamics is a key to understanding phenomenon of life. What is Life from a Physical Chemist’s Viewpoint; Second Ed.: “Regular and Chaotic Dynamics”. Moscow - Izhevsk. 2003. 144 p. (In Russian).
2. Gladyshev G.P. Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings N.Y.: Nova Sci. Publ. Inc. 1997.
3. Gladyshev G.P. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution: Aging of Living Beings // International Journal of Modern Physics B. - 2004. –V. 18. – No. 6. - P. 801-825.
4. Gladyshev G.P. Life is the inalienable component of energy-matter evolution // Adv. Gerontol. 2005. V. 16. P. 21-29. (In Russian).
The additional information:
Georgi P. Gladyshev, Tech of the Week http://www.yet2.com/app/insight/techofweek/6806
GladyshevG.P. Определение антистарительной ценности натуральных продуктов питания
(Definition gerontological value of foodstuff)http://www.heraldrsias.ru/journals/2008/2/104/
Gladyshev G.P. Антистарительноепитание – нашамолодостьиздоровье (Anti-aging nutrition - our youth and health) http://www.wpolitika.ru/PDF/WP17_lowres.pdf page 129.
GladyshevG.P. Питательные молекулы. (Nutritive particle molecules). http://www.gerontology.ru/PDF_YG/AG_2008-21-01-1.pdf
Anti-aging nutrition http://www.yet2.com/app/insight/techofweek/6806