G. P. Gladyshev
Russian Academy of Arts, International Academy of Creative Endeavors and N.N.Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117977 Moscow, Kosygina, 4.
Hierarchical thermodynamics is the physical and chemical foundation of chemical evolution, origin of life and biological evolution. Darwinism, of course, will be developed on the basis of general laws of nature, including the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of substance stability. Hierarchical thermodynamics explains many facts and contradictions in the theory of evolution. The expanded principle of "the Darwinian variation and selection" operates at all hierarchical levels of living matter, including a design of all the structural hierarchies of organisms. Aging can be described from the perspective of this principle. The principle of "variation and selection" can also be used in the study of the various stages of the general evolution of matter. This means that the theory of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace can be expanded in relation to the chemical evolution and other evolutionary transformations in the real world.
Keywords: Darwinism, evolution, aging, origin of life, natural selection, natural design, thermodynamics
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