Extended hierarchical theory of chemical resonance

Extended hierarchical theory of chemical resonance


G.P. Gladyshev




Keywords: resonance, hierarchy, thermodynamics, evolution, Pauling, Darwin 


The theory of resonance in chemistry states that the actual normal existence of molecules or their fragments can be represented not by a single structure of valence (chemical) bonds, but by a combination of several alternative different structures [1, 2]. 

The simplest example of resonance of chemical structures is the Kekule structures of benzene.

The theory of chemical resonance can be extended in relation to supramolecular chemistry, as well as in relation to all hierarchical structures of the living and nonliving world. According to an extended theory, supramolecular structures can be represented by a combination of many alternative structures formed by intermolecular bonds.

The assertion regarding the mentioned extension allows, in principle, to explain the manifestation of the diverse properties of supramolecular formations in the living world and the existence of blurred differences between different hierarchies and species of living beings. It can be assumed that the extended theory of resonance of L. Pauling and other researchers, like extended Darwinism, can use hierarchical thermodynamics [3, 4] to reveal the direction of biological evolution and the general evolution of matter.




1. Теория резонанса. Химическая энциклопедия.


2. Theory of resonance. Written by: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/science/theory-of-resonance 

3. Spyros G. Tzafestas. 3. Energy II: Thermodynamics. Springer International Publishing 


4. Hierarchical thermodynamics https://en.everybodywiki.com/Hierarchical_thermodynamics